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Vcam 5 1 |VERIFIED| Crack

Macrophages constitute the majority of atherosclerosis progressions by evolving the plaque instability and subsequent crack of an atherosclerotic plaque, thus resulting in thrombus formation and remodeling1,8,9. Furthermore, the generation of ROS in response to LDL oxidation has been shown to be regulated by macrophages10,11. The uptake of cholesterol crystals, which are present in atherosclerotic plaques, by macrophages may induce lysosomal destabilization, protease release and ROS production into the cytosol to activate nucleotide binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor (NLR)-pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which lead to the operation and secretion of the cytokine IL-1β12. Moreover, evidence indicates that macrophages have a strong effect on thrombosis formation. Atherosclerotic endothelium damage results in the reduction of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) combined with an impaired release of NO and increases the generation of ROS in the arterial wall13. As previously discussed, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) and ROS are the prominent initiators involved in atherosclerosis development.

vcam 5 1 crack

The crack-sealing maintenance procedure involves placement of specialized materials into working cracks using unique configurations to reduce the intrusion of incompressibles into the crack and to prevent the intrusion of water into the underlying pavement layers. Working cracks are defined as those that experience significant horizontal movements, generally greater than about 2 mm (.1 in.). * Typical sealing configurations are shown below.

Typical Filling Configurations: The crack-filling maintenance procedure involves the placement of materials into non-working cracks to substantially reduce infiltration of water and to reinforce the adjacent pavement.

Masserey, B; Fromme, P; (2014) Noncontact monitoring of fatigue crack growth using high frequency guided waves. In: Proceedings of SPIE. Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers: Bellingham, US.

Najarre, I; Kostson, E; Fromme, P; (2014) Guided ultrasonic waves for the monitoring of hidden fatigue crack growth in multi-layer aerospace structures. In: Proceedings of SPIE. Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers


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