21 : The Way To Capture A Prodigy
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21 : The Way to Capture a Prodigy
By the age of nineteen, Liam Howlett was already a veteran of the British underground music scene, having produced and released his own music, which was heavily influenced by rave culture. Raves, all-night parties that combined loud techno music and drugs, were spawning a growing subculture in England, and Howlett, in his music, attempted to capture the excitement of that young and subversive scene. Howlett met up with dancers Keith Flint and Leeroy Thornhill, and with them formed the Prodigy in 1990. The trio performed in clubs and at raves, with Flint and Thornhill serving to rile up crowds while Howlett played his music. The British label XL picked up the Prodigy and issued the band's self-produced first release What Evil Lurks in 1991, along with a host of singles. The Prodigy expanded its sound by adding rapper Maxim Reality to the lineup in 1993.
Several strategies to produce CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CMV-CTLs) have been developed by different investigators and are available for clinical use . Classically, antigen-specific CTLs are generated via extended culture protocols using antigen-presenting cells. Early studies on CMV-CTLs involved live CMV or lysate as the target antigen [5,6,7]; however, the availability of overlapping peptide pools now allows a simpler and safer manufacturing process . Nonetheless, ex vivo culture involving antigen presentation requires a prolonged manufacturing time, which limits use in emergency settings. Therefore, recent approaches have focused on rapid generation of CMV-CTLs by direct selection technologies, including the use of multimers [9,10] and the IFN-γ cytokine capture system (CCS) [10,11,12,13,14]. Direct selection methods have allowed simplified manufacturing and quality control processes circumventing regulatory issues. In particular, the IFN-γ CCS has several advantages over the multimer-based selection method, as it is HLA-independent, selects for both cytotoxic and helper T cells, and pre-activates the T cells through antigen-specific stimulation. The IFN-γ CCS has been available for over a decade and has been accompanied by either research-grade MiniMACS [11,14,15] or clinical-grade CliniMACS Plus [10,12,13,14,16] (both Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany). Despite its clinical compliance, CliniMACS Plus still requires considerable hands-on activity by the operator, which introduces potential handling errors and manufacturing inconsistencies. To overcome these limitations, the CliniMACS Prodigy was developed as a technical upgrade over the CliniMACS Plus, allowing a fully automated system. The CliniMACS Prodigy (Miltenyi Biotec) was initially described for its automated density gradient separation, including red blood cell depletion, magnetic cell separation, and cell culture . Recently, the integration of IFN-γ CCS software into the CliniMACS Prodigy has proven to be feasible for the automated production of CMV-specific T cells .
This process can be a difficult and time intensive operation. There are a few things to bear in mind to help simplify and speed up this process. With wireless sniffing, it helps to have an idea of what you want to do. You want to capture the raw wireless frames from over the air, as seen by the wireless sniffing device itself.
Step 1: Since the sniffing device, client device and AP are useng RF generating radios for transmission or reception, it helps to have your wireless sniffer close to your target device (the client machine). This allows your sniffing device to capture a good approximation of what your client device hears over the air.
Step 3: Understand exactly what 802.11 Channel and Band your client device uses before setting up your capture. Lock your sniffer to the channel of interest - do not use the sniffer's "scan channels" mode! (With "scan channels", the sniffer cycles from channel to channel every second or so. This is useful for a site survey or to find "rogues", but not when you attempt to capture an 802.11 problem.)
Step 4: If you troubleshoot 5GHz, then the number of channels dramatically increases. Since you can not have enough cards to capture all channels, it is a good practice for the test to operate on not more than 4 channels on your surrounding Access Points.
Step 6: Always NTP sync your sniffers. The packet capture needs to be collated with debug captures, and with other wired and/or wireless captures. To have your timestamps even one second off makes the collation much more difficult.
Step 7: If you are capturing for a long period of time (hours), then configure your sniffer to cut a new capture file every 30MB or so. In order not to fill up your hard drive, you want to put an upper limit on the number of files written.
Wireless sniffing on the Mac works well, as Mac OS X has built in tools to capture a wireless trace. However, it depends on what versions of OS X you are running, as the commands can vary. This document covers OS X 10.6 through the latest version. Wi-Fi diagnostics is the preferred method in the latest macbooks. It is always good to remember that your macbook sniffer needs to be at least as capable as the client you are sniffing (sniffing an 802.11ac smartphone with an 802.11n macbook is not optimal).
Once you are finished with the trace, hit Cntl-C to stop the trace and the utility displays the name and location of the capture file. The file format is your standard wireshark PCAP file that can be read on the MAC or Windows via Wireshark.
Tcpdump is a command line utility shipped with OS X that can perform packet capture (The tshark utility bundled with Wireshark is very similar). To perform a wireless packet capture with tcpdump:
Keep that window open and navigate to the menu bar on top of the screen. Click Window. You see a list of various tools (useful for site survey or signal analysis). In the scope of wireless sniffer capture, you are interested in the Sniffer option, click it.
In order to see the RF from the point of view of the client while roaming, a multi-channel wireless trace should be captured with a laptop with multiple Wireless NICs that will follow the test client.
This filter is optional, but strongly recommended as it excludes all the non-wireless related traffic from the capture. Consider that the WLC sends traffic to a UDP port and there is no application listening on the sniffer side; this results in a ICMP port-unreachable response for each packet received from the WLC.
In this case, it is not necessary to filter out any traffic (such as the ICMP port-unreachable) as OmniPeek listens on the UDP port to specifically capture the data stream from the Wireless LAN Controller.
Note: By default OmniPeek remote adapter picks up the timestamp sent by the AP itself. This info has nothing to do with the AP clock, so the resulting timestamp will be incorrect. If you use a single sniffer AP, the timestamps will be wrong but at least consistent. This is no longer true if you use multiple APs as sniffers (as every AP sends its own timestamp info, causing weird time jumps on the merged capture).
1. Enter the dot11radio interface on which you wish to perform the capture. Set the station-role to sniffer, add the server/PC IP that will run Wireshark and collect the captures, and select the channel. The port you specify with the monitor frames command will be the destination UDP port to which the AP sends the captures.
To analyze wireless captures, refer to the links listed. They are designed to be read in order since each document builds upon the preceding document. Remember, that when reading any wireless trace, it is a good idea to understand the 802.11 Wireless specifications. These documents do a great job to help you understand the packet flow and what to look for in a wireless trace. They are not meant to teach the 802.11 Wireless specifications.
Wireless is another story entirely. The physical layer is more complex and treacherous than wired. Before you dive into an attempt to analyze a capture based upon the upper layers, it is usually a good idea to get an understanding of the physical layer in which the capture was taken. If the physical layer is not working right, then the upper layers will never have a chance.
The wireshark tool in itself does not help you get through the troubleshoot process unless you have good knowledge and understand the protocol, the topology of the network and which data points to consider to take sniffer traces. This is true whether it is for a wired or for a wireless network where we capture the packets over the air before they are put on the network. The stripping of the wireless mac address is done by the by the AP.
When it comes to troubleshoot network related issues, there are many dependencies, and all work in layered model and each layer of data depends on its lower layer under it. There are many components or network elements and configuration and proper operation of the devices that help us achieve a smooth running network. When a working network stops functioning, a logical approach is required to localize the issue. Once identified, the exact point of failure is difficult to find. In those situations, sniffer comes to our aid. This troubleshooting process can become complicated despite your best approach and even when you have a good knowledge of troubleshooting skills. The problem is that if you capture the packets that travel through a network device, you can have huge files and can even end up at 1G if you capture long enough with lot packets details in it. With the such a large amount of data, it can be very time consuming to pin point the problem and gets to be a very difficult task. Filtering comes to your rescue tand can help you to spot the problems quickly and eliminate the unwanted traffic, and cut down on the variables to focus on at one time. This helps in quickly finding whether the interesting traffic is present or absent from the traffic collected. 041b061a72